Israelites (i.e., non-kohanim) fulfill their obligation to bring peace-offerings (shalmei simcha) using animals that are pledged, consecrated or animal tithe (maaser beheima); kohanim can fulfill this obligation with sin-offerings, guilt-offerings, first-born animals, and the breast and shoulder they receive, but not with birds or flour offerings.
One who has many mouths to feed and limited funds should bring many peace-offerings and few burnt-offerings. One who has more assets and fewer mouths to feed should bring many burnt-offerings and few peace-offerings. One who has both limited funds and a small family is the person referred to in Mishna 1:2, where it sets the standard of one silver ma’ah and two silver ma’ah. Regarding a person who has both great assets and a large family, Deuteronomy 16:17 says, “Every person shall give according to his means, according to the blessing that Hashem your God has given you.”