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Resources for Kesubos daf 48

1.     The גמרא says that if a person becomes a שוטה, ב"ד goes down to his רשות and supports his family because we assume that’s what he would want us to do. The קצות החושן in חו"מ סימן שנ"ח asks why this is allowed—isn’t it similar to the concept of יאוש שלא מדעת where we say someone’s future thoughts don’t allow you to use the money now? For example, תוספות in ב"ם דף כ"ב ע"א says that you can’t eat your friends food without his permission even if you know he will be ok with it because he doesn’t know yet and it’s like יאוש שלא מדעת. If so, how can we go give this woman and her children the husband’s money when he hasn’t had the thought to allow it? He answers that perhaps a מצוה is different since there the assumed דעת is stronger. However, this wont explain how anyone could hold you could give her a תכשיט which the גמרא suggests. The ש"ך there disagrees and says לולי דמסתפינא  he would argue with תוספות and say that a lost object is different since there the person is only being מייאש because he has no choice since he doesn’t know where to find his object. That’s not real דעת and is considered באיסורא בא לידו. However, in our case the person we assume would really want to give his money to his family and that does represent a דעת להקנות and is considered בהיתירא בא לידו.

2.     The משנה says that a woman leaves the רשות of her father and enters the רשות of her husband when she is given over to his שלוחים. The גמרא brings a מחלוקת אמוראים as to what this change of רשות accomplishes. Seemingly, רב ורב אסי hold it accomplishes everything or almost everything חופּה does, and שמואל and ריש לקיש hold it only accomplishes a either ירושה or to lower her כתובה. There is a major מחלוקת as to what חופּה is which relates to this discussion. The ר"ן at the beginning of כתובות onדף א׳ ד"ה או brings two opinions. One is theרמב"ם  in הלכות אישות פּרק י׳ הל׳ א who holds that חופּה is bringing the woman to the husband’s רשות and having a יחוד הראוי לביאה with her. The ר"ן brings אחרים who hold that חופּה is simply bringing the woman into his רשות for the purpose of נישואין. The בית יעקב at the beginning of כתובות famously asks that our גמרא should be a סתירה to theרמב"ם . According to the רמב"ם , if חופּה isיחוד הראוי לביאה, then what does the giving her over to the שלוחי הבעל accomplish? What connection does that have to the concept of חופּה? Moreover, the גרנ"ט in the beginning of כתובות asks that according to the רמב"ם  a woman needs to not be a נדה in order for the חופּה to work. If so, it should come out that the מסירה לשלוחי הבעל should also require her to not be a נדה but the רמב"ם  does not mention that when he quotes this דין of מסירה לשלוחי הבעל. The truth is that there is a תשובות הרא"ש in כלל נ"ד סימן ב that suggests that the woman does in fact need to be טהורה for the מסירה לשלוחי הבעל to work but as mentioned that isn’t mentioned anywhere in the רמב"ם . The בית שמואל in אבן העזר סימן ס"א ס"ק ב answers that theרמב"ם  paskens like שמואל that מסירה לשלוחי הבעל really doesn’t work except for ירושה, and ירושה has zero to do with חופּה and is only due to the fact that the מסירה indicates a מחילה on the part of the father. The בית יעקב himself suggests that there is a difference as to whether the lady is בוגרת or younger. If she is a קטנה or נערה then the מסירה works since she is totally in her fathers control. However, by a בוגרת she is not under her father’s control so the מסירה doesn’t help. The גרנ"ט further explains that a בוגרת is in her own רשות wherever she goes so being given over to שלוחים is meaningless unless she actually has יחוד with him. The גרנ"ט himself argues with this approach and says the רמב"ם  is not משמע like the בית יעקב. Rather, he answers that there are two types of things that חופּה accomplishes. One is קניני ממון which includes הפרת נדרים and anything else the father had a זכות in. The other per of חופּה is the physical part (דברים שבינו לבינה)which is really only relevant to the actual husband. That second part is what requires יחוד הראֽוי לביאה, but the first part can be accomplished via the מסירה לשלוחי הבעל.