Playback speed

Resources for Kesubos daf 45

1.     The גמרא says that when a girl is proven to have been מזנה as a נערה המאורסה then we are סוקל her על פּתח בית אביה to tell the parents "ראו גידולים שגדלתם" (i.e. you brought up your daughter incorrectly) . The Torah seems to hold the parents responsible for the daughter’s wayward actions. In fact, in או"ח סימן קכ"ח the רמ"א brings the מרדכי who says that if the father of the girl who was מזנה is a כהן, he no longer needs to be treated with any special הלכות כהונה (he doesn’t need to get the first עליה, etc.) as it says את אביה היא מחללת. This concept helps us understand a foundational question on the whole story of the מוציא שם רע: for some reason, when the husband falsely accuses his wife of being מזנה, we give the מאה כסף to the father! The case of a מוציא שם רע where the husband pays is where the girl is a נשואה and totally out of the father’s רשות so one would have expected the money to go to the wife and not the father. Furthermore, we have the husband being לוקה ומשלם which the Torah usually doesn’t do. The משך חכמה in פּרשת כי תצא פּרק כ"ב פּסוק י"ז explains this beautifully: the מוציא שם רע is really accusing two people falsely: the wife of being מזנה and the father of bringing his daughter up incorrectly. Therefore, the husband gets מלקות for lying about the daughter and must marry her forever (her portion), and pays money to the father for falsely accusing him (his portion)! So it is a case of ממון לזה ומלקות לזה.

2.     The גמרא says that a מוציא שם רע according to רבי יהודה gets מלקות whether the husband was בעל or not. The גמרא then clarifies that if he wasn’t בעל then he just gets מכת מרדות. For whatever reason, many ראשונים take the opportunity here to have a fascinating and yesodosdik discussion as to what exactly מכת מרדות is. For example, the ריטב"א and ר"ן here both quote the ערוך as well as the רמב"ם  (in הלכות חמץ ומצה פּרק ו׳) who say that מכת מרדות consists of "מכין אותו עד שתצא נפשם" which means they hit him till he dies which is a lot worse than מלקות דאורייתא which is just 39 lashes (and even the 39 lashes are only if the person can physically handle it). However, theרמב"ם  in פּירוש המשניות of נזיר as well as רבינו מאיר הלוי ז"ל say that the amount of lashes is "לפי אומד הדעת להקל ממלקות של תורה". That sounds like it is less than 39 lashes and is more lenient than מלקות דאורייתא. The פּרי חדש in או"ח סימן תע"א אות ב brings the ריב"ש who says that מכת מרדות is the same amount of lashes as a דין תורה (39) but it is done more lightly. Both the ריטב"א and ר"ן assume that the הלכה is like רבינו מאיר הלוי ז"ל that מכת מרדות is more קל than מלקות דאורייתא. However, that is only when done as a form of punishment for a transgression of the past. However, if the person plans to continue to not follow the דין דרבנן then they agreed that מכין אותו עד שתצא נפשם. The פּרי מגדים in his פּתיחה כוללת has a "קונטרס מכת מרדות" where he discusses many חקירות regarding מכת מרדות. One that jumps out from reading the ראשונים on our דף is that the ערוך quoted by the ר"ן does not seem to require התראה for מכת מרדות. This is also the opinion of the רמב"ם in הלכות סנהדרין פּרק י"ח הל׳ ה. The פּרי מגדים brings the ספר לחם יהודה who says that it depends on the איסור דרבנן. If it is a regular איסור דרבנן that is done to enhance a דין תורה then you need a התראה first. However, if the איסור דרבנן is done as a " סייג וגדר שלא יוסיפו לפרוץ” then no התראה is needed to give מלקות unless even the מבינים don’t know its אסור. 

New Daf Hashavua newsletter - Shavua Matters

Rabbi Yechiel Grunhaus - Points to Ponder

Daf HaShavua Choveres - compiled by Rabbi Pinchas Englander

Rabbi Yaakov Blumenfeld - Shakla Vetarya

Rabbi Ari Keilson - Maarei Mekomos