A man may not refrain from procreating unless he already has children: Beis Shammai say two boys, but Beis Hillel say a boy and a girl as per Genesis 5:2, “Male and female He created them.” If a man married a woman and they stayed together for ten years without having children, he may not refrain from the obligation to procreate (i.e., he must marry another wife - when this was an option – or divorce and marry someone else). If he divorced his wife, she may marry someone else (who may be able to have children with her); the second husband then stays with her for ten years. If a woman miscarries, the ten-year “clock” resets to the time of the miscarriage. Only men are obligated in the mitzvah to procreate; women are exempt. Rabbi Yochanan ben Beroka believes that both genders are obligated as per Genesis 1:28, “God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply.’”
Let’s say that the Kohein Gadol married a widow, or that a regular kohein married a divorcee or a woman who had performed chalitzah (all of which are prohibited marriages) and the woman brought into the marriage both slaves of her father’s house (who remain her “property”) and slaves as part of her dowry (for whom her husband becomes responsible). The slaves of her father’s house may not eat terumah (because they belong to the wife and she may not eat terumah) but the dowry slaves may (because the husband is responsible for them). If the slaves from the wife’s father’s house die, she bears the loss; if they increase, she reaps the profit. Even though the husband must feed them, they may not eat terumah. Regarding dowry slaves, if they die, he bears the loss and if they increase, he reaps the profit. Since he is responsible for them, they may eat terumah.