Kesubos - Daf 66

  • Rebbe Yehudah ben Besierah’s position that a husband receives partial payment of בושת ופגם

The Mishnah on Daf 65b stated regarding a wife who was struck by another: בושתה ופגמה שלה – payment for her humiliation and devaluation is hers. But Rebbe Yehudah ben Beseira says: בזמן שבסתר – When the injury is concealed, two parts of the payment are hers, and one part of the payment goes to her husband. When the injury is exposed, two parts are his and one is hers. Rashi explains that a defect in the wife’s appearance causes him embarrassment, and also makes her repulsive in his eyes. Ravina asked Rav Ashi regarding Rebbe Yehudah ben Beseira’s position: בייש עני בן טובים דאית להו זילותא לכולהו בני משפחה – if one humiliated a pauper from a wealthy family, where the entire family suffers disgrace, would one have to pay restitution for boshes to the entire family too? Rav Ashi answered, התם לאו גופייהו הכא אשתו גופיה הואי – There, regarding the pauper from the wealthy family, he is not part of their bodies. But here, the wife is legally considered his “body.” Therefore, an assault on her is considered an assault on the husband as well. 

  • A chosson commits to adding on a half to a cash dowry

The next Mishnah states: פסקה להכניס לו אלף דינר – If the kallah pledged to bring her chosson a thousand dinars in cash, הוא פוסק כנגדן חמש עשרה מנה – he contracts to pay her fifteen manehs against them, which is an increase of one half. Rashi explains that the reason for the increase is that cash is readily used for doing business and earning a profit. When the next Mishnah states that if she brings in four dinars, he commits to repaying six, which is an increase of a half, the Gemara asks why the Mishnah repeated the same concept. The Gemara answers that if the Mishnah had only mentioned the large amount, one might come to think he must increase by a half, דנפיש רווחה – because its potential profit is large. But with the smaller amount, where the potential profit is small, he would not add a half. And if it had only taught it with the small amount, one might have thought דזוטר זיונא – because the expenses are low, he adds a half. But with the larger amount, where the expenses are high, he does not add a half.

  • Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai’s encounter with the daughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon

It was taught in a Baraisa: Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai was leaving Yerushalayim, accompanied by his students. ראה ריבה אחת שהיתה מלקטת שעורים מבין גללי בהמתן שלערביים– He saw a certain maiden who was collecting barley kernels between the dung of animals that belonged to Arabs. When she identified herself as the daughter of the fabulously wealthy Nakdimon ben Guryon, he asked her what had happened to all of her father’s and father-in-law’s wealth, and she answered that it was all wiped out. Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai recalled that when he signed her kesubah, he read that she brought in a million dinars of gold from her father’s house, besides what was promised by her father -in-law. He then wept and said: אשריכם ישראל – Fortunate are you Yisroel. בזמן שעושין רצונו של מקום אין כל אומה ולשון שולטת בהם – When they do Hashem’s will, no nation or tongue can rule over them. ובזמן שאין עושין רצונו של מקום מוסרן ביד אומה שפלה – But when they do not do Hashem’s will, He gives them over to the hands of a lowly nation, and not into the hands of the lowly nation itself, but into the hands of the animals of a lowly nation. The Maharsha explains that this demonstrates they are under Hashem’s direct control. They rise higher than all nations when good, because they are under His guidance, and sink below them when bad, because they do not even have the protection of the ministering angels.