2,627. An Oath of Testimony
Hilchos Shevuos 1:11
Pursuant to the previous halacha, we must define what it means to act unintentionally vis-à-vis an oath of deposit. Let’s say that someone forgot that he was obligated to bring a sacrifice for a false oath; he knew that the oath was prohibited and that he was in possession of the other’s money. This is a case of unintentional violation. Intentional violation is when he remembers that he’s obligated in the sacrifice.
Hilchos Shevuos 1:12
An oath of testimony is when witnesses are aware of testimony regarding a financial case and the litigant calls them to testify on his behalf. The witnesses then deny having knowledge of testimony, they don’t testify, and they take an oath that they are unaware of the testimony that affects him. Making an oath of this type renders one liable to a variable guilt offering regardless of whether he acted intentionally or unintentionally, as per Leviticus 5:1, “If a person sins, accepting an oath, and he is a witness….” The verse doesn’t specify, “it will be concealed from him,” from which we see that one who violates intentionally is also liable.