There are four different types of students. If one is quick to understand but also quick to forget, then what he gains (through his quick comprehension) is canceled out by what he loses (by just forgetting it again; this is a net loss). If one is slow to understand but also slow to forget, then what he loses (by needing more time to grasp the material) is canceled out by what he gains (by retaining the material longer – a net gain). One who is quick to understand and slow to forget possesses the capacity to be wise. One who is slow to understand and quick to forget has been dealt an unfortunate hand.
There are four different types of people when it comes to charity. If one wants to give but wishes that others wouldn’t (so that he can get all the praise), then he is stingy when it comes to others’ needs (placing his own desire for honor above maximizing the income of needy people). If one wants others to give but he himself will not give, he is stingy when it comes to himself (not begrudging the poor but being too greedy to assist). One who wants to give and also wants others to give is pious. One who won’t give and also doesn’t want others to give is evil.