Parshas Vayikra

Words in bold represent changes to the traditional translation based on the Aramaic translation/commentary attributed to Onkelos the Ger.

Parshas Vayikra

Chapter 1

Rishon

1. Hashem called to Moshe. He spoke with[1] him from the Tent of Meeting, saying:

2. Speak with the children of Israel and say to them, “A person who offers[2] from you an offering before Hashem from the domesticated animals, he shall offer his offering from the herd or from the flock.

3. If his offering is a burnt offering from the herd, a unblemished[3] male he shall offer it. He shall bring it near to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, for favor for him[4] before Hashem.

4. He shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt offering and it will be acceptable for him, to atone for him.

5. The bull shall be slaughtered before Hashem. Aharon’s sons, the priests, will offer the blood; they will throw the blood on the altar all around, which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.

6. Skin the burnt offering and cut it into its pieces.

7. The sons of Aharon the priest will put fire on the altar and arrange wood on the fire.

8. Aharon’s sons, the priests, shall arrange the limbs,[5] the head and the fat[6] on the wood that is on the fire on the altar.

9. Its entrails and legs shall be washed with water and the priest will smoke the entirety on the altar (as) a burnt offering, an offering that is accepted with favor before Hashem.[7]

10. If his offering is from the flock, from the sheep or from the sons of goats, for a burnt offering, a male without blemish he shall offer it.

11. It shall be slaughtered on the north side[8] of the altar before Hashem. Aharon’s sons, the priests, shall throw its blood on the altar all around.

12. Divide it into its limbs, its head and its fat; the priest will arrange them on the wood that is on the fire on the altar.

13. The entrails and the legs shall be washed with water. The priest shall offer the entirety and smoke (it) on the altar. It is a burnt offering, an offering that is accepted with favor before Hashem.

Sheini

14. If his offering to Hashem is a burnt offering from the birds, he shall offer his offering from the doves or from the young pigeons.

15. The priest shall bring it near to the altar, nip off its head and smoke it on the altar. Its blood shall be drained against the wall of the altar.

16. He shall remove its crop with its food[9] and throw it next to the altar to the east, to the place where they pour the ashes.[10]

17. He shall split it by its wings – he shall not separate it (completely) – and the kohein will smoke it on the altar, upon the wood that is on the fire. It is a burnt offering, an offering that is accepted with favor before Hashem.

Chapter 2

1. A person[11] who offers a flour offering before Hashem, his offering shall fine flour; he shall pour oil upon it and place frankincense upon it.

2. He shall bring it to Aharon’s sons, the priests. He (the priest) shall scoop from it a handful of its fine flour and of its oil, on all of its frankincense. The priest shall smoke its reminder on the altar, an offering that is accepted with favor before Hashem.

3. The remainder of the flour offering will be for Aharon and for his sons, most holy[12] from Hashem’s offerings.[13]

4. When you offer an oven-baked flour offering – fine flour, unleavened cakes mixed with oil or unleavened bread anointed with oil.

5. If your offering is a flour offering on a griddle[14] – fine flour mixed with oil, unleavened it shall be.

6. Break it into pieces and pour oil on it; it is a flour offering.

Shlishi

7. If your offering is a flour offering in a pan[15] – make it of fine flour in oil.

8. You shall bring the flour offering that you shall make of these before Hashem. He shall bring it to the priest and he will bring it near the altar

9. The priest will raise the remembrance from the flour offering and smoke it on the altar, an offering that is accepted with favor before Hashem.

10. The remainder of the flour offering will be for Aharon and for his sons, most holy of Hashem’s offerings.

11. All flour offering(s) that you offer to Hashem shall not be made leavened because all leaven and all honey may not be smoked from it as an offering before Hashem.

12. An offering of first (fruits), you shall offer them to Hashem, and they shall not be brought up to the altar to be accepted with favor.[16]

13. All of your flour offerings you shall salt with salt, and do not omit the salt of your God’s covenant from upon your flour offering; on all your offerings offer salt.

14. If you offer a flour offering of first fruits[17] before Hashem – newly-ripened, parched with fire, soft[18] coarse flour you shall offer your flour offering of first fruits.

15. Place oil upon it and put frankincense on it; it is a flour offering.

16. The priest shall smoke its remembrance – (some) of its coarse flour and (some) of its oil on all of its frankincense – an offering before Hashem.

Chapter 3

Revii

1. If his sacrifice is a holiness offering,[19] if he offers from the herd, whether male or female, unblemished he shall bring it before Hashem.

2. He shall lay his hand on the head of his offering and slaughter it at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and Aharon’s sons, the priests, will throw the blood on the altar all around.

3. He shall offer from the holiness sacrifice an offering before Hashem: the fat that covers the entrails and all the fat that is on the entrails,

4. the two kidneys and the fat that is on them, that is on the flanks, and the lobe that is on the liver he shall remove with[20] the kidneys.

5. Aharon’s sons shall smoke it on the altar, on the burnt offering that is on the wood that is on the fire, an offering that is accepted with favor before Hashem.

6. And if his offering for a holiness sacrifice before Hashem is from the flock, male or female, he shall offer it unblemished.

7. If he offers a sheep as his offering, he shall bring it near before Hashem,

8. and lay his hand on the head of his offering, and slaughter it before the Tent of Meeting. And Aharon’s sons will throw its blood on the altar all around.

9. He shall offer from the holiness sacrifice an offering before Hashem: its fat, the entire fat tail – he shall remove it near the backbone – and the fat that covers the entrails and all the fat that is on the entrails,

10. the two kidneys and the fat that is on them, that is on the flanks, and the lobe that is on the liver he shall remove with the kidneys.

11. The priest will smoke it on the altar (as) food[21] of the offering before Hashem.

12. And if his offering is of the sons of goats, he shall bring it near before Hashem,

13. and lay his hand on its head, and slaughter it before the Tent of Meeting. And Aharon’s sons will throw its blood on the altar all around.

14. He shall offer from it his offering, an offering before Hashem: the fat that covers the entrails and all the fat that is on the entrails,

15. and the two kidneys and the fat that is on them, that is on the flanks, and the lobe that is on the liver he shall remove with the kidneys.

16. The priest will smoke it on the altar (as) food, an offering that is accepted with favor. All fat is before Hashem.

17. It is an eternal statute for your generations, in all your settlements: all fat and all blood you may not eat.

Chapter 4

Chamishi

1. Hashem spoke with[22] Moshe, saying:

2. Speak with the children of Israel, saying: A person who sins inadvertently from all of Hashem’s commandments that are not appropriate to do,[23] and he does one of them,

3. if the high priest[24] sinned to the guilt of the people, he shall offer for his sin that he sinned an unblemished young bull before Hashem as a sin offering.

4. He shall bring the bull to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to before Hashem and he shall lay his hand on the bull’s head, and he shall slaughter the bull before Hashem.

5. And the high priest shall take of the bull’s blood and bring it to the Tent of Meeting.

6. The priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle from the blood seven times before Hashem, in front of the curtain of the sanctuary.

7. The priest shall put from the blood on the horns of the spice incense altar before Hashem, which is in the Tent of Meeting. And all the bull’s blood he shall pour on the base of the burnt offering altar, which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.

8. And all the fat of the sin-offering bull he shall remove from it – the fat that covers the entrails and all the fat that is on the entrails,

9. and the two kidneys and the fat that is on them, that is on the flanks, and the lobe that is on the liver he shall remove with the kidneys,

10. as it is removed from the ox of the holiness sacrifice, so it shall be removed from the sheep and the goat. The priest shall smoke them on the burnt offering altar.

11. And the hide of the bull and all its flesh, on its head and on its legs, and its entrails and its excrement,

12. he shall take out the entire bull to outside the camp, to a pure place, to where the ashes are poured, and burn it on wood in fire. On the place where the ashes are poured it shall be burned.

13. If it is the entire congregation of Israel errs and a matter is hidden from the eyes of the community, and they do from all of Hashem’s commandments that are not appropriate to do, and they incur guilt,

14. and the sin that they sinned becomes known, the community shall offer a young bull as a sin offering, and bring it to before the Tent of Meeting.

15. The elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull before Hashem, and he shall slaughter the bull before Hashem.

16. The high priest shall bring from the bull’s blood to the Tent of Meeting.

17. The priest shall dip his finger in[25] the blood and sprinkle seven times before Hashem in front of the drape.

18. And from the blood he shall put on the horns of the altar that is before Hashem, which is in the Tent of Meeting, and all the blood he shall pour on the base of the burnt offering altar, which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.

19. He shall remove all its fat from it and smoke it on the altar.

20. He shall do to the bull as was done with the bull of the sin offering; so shall he do with it. The priest will atone for them and they will be exempted.[26]

21. He shall bring the bull out to outside the camp and burn it as he burned the first bull; it is the sin offering of the community.

22. That a prince sins and unwittingly does of all the commandments of Hashem his God that are not appropriate to do and incurs guilt,

23. or his sin through which he sinned becomes known to him, he shall bring his offering – an unblemished male goat.

24. He shall lay his hand on the goat’s head and slaughter it in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered before Hashem; it is a sin offering.

25. The priest shall take of the sin offering’s blood with his finger and place it on the horns of the burnt offering altar, and its blood he shall pour out on the base of the burnt offering altar.

26. All its fat he shall smoke on the altar like the fat of the holiness sacrifice. The priest shall for him from his sin and he will be exempted.

Shishi

27. If one person from among the people of the land sins inadvertently by doing one of the commandments of Hashem that are not appropriate to do and he incurs guilt,

28. or his sin through which he sinned becomes known to him, he shall bring his offering – an unblemished female goat for his sin that he sinned.

29. He shall lay his hand on the sin offering’s head and slaughter the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering.

30. The priest shall take of its blood with his finger some and put it on the horns of the burnt offering altar, and all its blood he shall pour on the base of the altar.

31. He shall remove all its fat like the fat is removed from upon the holiness sacrifice. The priest shall smoke it on the altar to be accepted with favor before Hashem. The priest will atone for him and he will be exempted.

32. If he brings a sheep (for) his offering as a sin offering, an unblemished female he shall bring it.

33. He shall lay his hand on the sin offering’s head and slaughter it as a sin offering in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered.

34. The priest will take from the blood of the sin offering with his finger some and put it on the horns of the burnt offering altar, and all its blood he shall pour on the base of the altar.

35. And all its fat he shall remove like the fat of the sheep of the holiness sacrifice is removed. The priest will smoke them on the altar, with Hashem’s offerings. The priest will atone for him for his sin that he sinned and he will be exempted.

Chapter 5

1. If a person sins and hears the voice (imposing) an oath, and he’s a witness either seeing or hearing or knowing, if he doesn’t tell and he bears his sin,

2. or a person who touches any unclean thing, either the carcass of an unclean wild animal or the carcass of an unclean domesticated animal or the carcass of an unclean crawling thing, and it[27] is hidden from him, and he is impure and incurs guilt,

3. or if he touches the impurity of a human, for all his impurity through which one is rendered unclean, and it is hidden from him and he becomes aware and incurs guilt,

4. or a person who swears, expressing with his lips to do bad or to do good, for whatever a person expresses in an oath, and it is hidden from him and he becomes aware and incurs guilt in one of these,

5. it shall be when he incurs guilt in one of these, he shall confess that by which he has sinned.

6. He shall bring his guilt offering to Hashem for the sin that he sinned, a female of the flock – a sheep or a goat – as a sin offering. The priest will atone for him from his sin.

7. And if his means do not suffice[28] for a sheep, he shall bring his guilt offering (for) that (which) he sinned two doves or two young pigeons before Hashem – one for a sin offering and one for a burnt offering.

8. He shall bring them to the priest, who will offer the one for the sin offering first, and nip its head near the nape; he shall not separate it.

9. He shall sprinkle from the sin offering’s blood on the wall of the altar and what remains of the blood shall be drained on the base of the altar; it is a sin offering.

10. And the second he shall make a burnt offering appropriately.[29] The priest will atone for him from his sin that he sinned and he will be exempted.

Shevii

11. And if his means do not suffice for two doves or two young pigeons, he shall bring his offering (for) what he sinned a tenth of three seah[30] of fine flour as a sin offering. He shall not place oil on it and not put frankincense on it because it is a sin offering.

12. He shall bring it to the priest. The priest will scoop from it a handful as its remembrance and smoke it on the altar, with Hashem’s offerings; it is a sin offering.

13. The priest will atone for his sin that he sinned from one of these and he will be exempted. It will be for the priest, like the flour offering.

14. Hashem spoke with Moshe, saying:

15. A person who acts falsely[31] and sins inadvertently from Hashem’s sacred things, he shall bring his guilt offering before Hashem – an unblemished ram from the flock, its value two silver sela[32] according to the holy sela, as a guilt offering.

16. And that which he sinned from the sacred he shall restore, and its fifth he shall add to it, and give it to the priest. And the priest will atone for him through the ram of the guilt offering, and he will be exempted.

17. And if a person who sins and does one from all of Hashem’s commandments that are not appropriate to do, and he doesn’t know and incurs guilt, he shall bear his sin.

18. He shall bring an unblemished ram without from the flock with the value of a guilt offering to the priest. And the priest will atone for him for his error that he erred and he didn’t know, and he will be forgiven.

19. It is a guilt offering; for his sin that he sinned, he shall offer a guilt offering before Hashem.[33]

20. Hashem spoke with Moshe, saying:

21. A person who sins and acts falsely before Hashem by denying to his fellow regarding a deposit or partnership,[34] or through robbery, or by withholding (wages from) his fellow,[35]

22. or if he found a lost object and denied it, and he swears falsely about one of all (the things) that a person might do to sin through it,

23. it will be when one has sinned and incurred guilt, he shall return the stolen object that he stole, or the withholding that he withheld, or the deposit that was deposited to him, or the lost item that he found,

24. or of anything about which he swore falsely, he shall repay the principal[36] and its fifth[37] he shall add to it. To the one to whom it belongs he shall give it on the day of his guilt.

25. He shall bring to the priest his guilt offering before Hashem – an unblemished ram from the flock the value of a guilt offering.

26. The priest will atone for him before Hashem and he will be exempted for one of all that he did whereby to incur guilt.

[1] Rather than “to.”

[2] Literally, “brings near.”

[3] Literally, “whole” or “perfect.”

[4] Rather than “of his own will.”

[5] As opposed to “pieces.”

[6] Onkelos’ choice of words specifies the forbidden fats (cheilev) to the exclusion of the permitted fats (shuman),

[7] Rather than “a fire offering of pleasing aroma to Hashem.”

[8] The Hebrew literally translates as “thigh.”

[9] Rather than “feathers.”

[10] Rather than simply “of the ashes.”

[11] Hebrew: “soul.”

[12] Literally, “holy of holies.”

[13] Rather than “fire offerings.”

[14] Or a shallow pan.

[15] i.e., a deep pan.

[16] Rather than “for a pleasing aroma.”

[17] i.e., of grain.

[18] Rather than “full.”

[19] As opposed to a “peace offering.”

[20] Literally, “on.”

[21] Literally, “bread.”

[22] Rather than “to.”

[23] Rather than “that should not be done.”

[24] As opposed to “the anointed priest.”

[25] Literally, “from.”

[26] From punishment, as opposed to completely forgiven.

[27] i.e., this fact.

[28] Literally, “if his hand does not reach sufficiently.”

[29] Rather than “according to law.”

[30] Rather than “a tenth of an ephah,”an equivalent measure.

[31] Rather than “misappropriates a misappropriation.”

[32] As opposed to “with a value in silver shekels.” A sela is the equivalent of a shekel.

[33] Chumash: “It is a guilt offering; he has incurred guilt to Hashem.”

[34] Chumash: “(money) placed in hand.”

[35] Rather than “oppressing his fellow.”

[36] Literally, its head.

[37] Onkelos changes this word from plural to singular.

© Copyright 2021 Rabbi Jack Abramowitz